The Prayas News Analysis
DAILY STATIC MCQs :
Q 1.Scientists have observed a new class of quantum matter created at low temperatures, in which a very large atom contains other ordinary atoms in the space between the nucleus and the electrons. The new state of matter is
termed as –
a) Bose Fermion
b) Higgs Boson
c) Rydberg polarons
Scientists have observed a new class of quantum matter at the very smallest scales in one of
the coldest environments ever made. This discovery could pave the way for new
technologies including innovations in superconductivity and other cutting-edge fields.
The researchers examined the behavior of matter on the atomic and subatomic scales –
known as “quantum matter” – where a large number of particles interact with each other.
This latest discovery reveals a new state of quantum matter called a “Rydberg polaron,” a
relatively giant particle containing many atoms that behaves in some ways like a single
It is an exotic state of matter, created at low temperatures, in which a very large atom
contains other ordinary atoms in the space between the nucleus and the electrons.
For the formation of this atom, scientists had to combine two fields of atomic physics: BoseEinstein condensates and Rydberg atoms.
Rydberg atoms are formed by exciting a single atom into a high-energy state, in
which the electron is very far from the nucleus.
What will be the use of these Rydberg polarons?
A particularly interesting implication is for cosmology. Our universe is believed to be filled
with a mysterious ‘dark matter’ which exerts a gravitational force on other matter.
Some theories of dark matter postulate that it is a cosmic Bose Einstein Condensate,
perhaps composed of an as-yet-unknown type of particle. If we are indeed living in an
invisible all pervading Bose Einstein Condensate, this experiment can suggest ways to detect
Q.2) Consider the following statements about Noble Gases and identify the incorrect statement:
a) All of the elements in Group Zero are noble gases.
b) The list includes helium, neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn).
c) They are called noble gases because they are so majestic that, in general, they don’t React with anything.
d) Among all noble gases, Neon is the most reactive and xenon is very unreactive.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements
with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless,
monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity. The six noble gases that occur naturally
are helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon
They traditionally have been labeled Group 0 in the periodic table because for decades after
their discovery it was believed that they could not bond to other atoms; that is, that their
atoms could not combine with those of other elements to form chemical compounds.
Scientists have actually split the noble gases up into two groups, with krypton, xenon, and
radon considered to be relatively reactive, and argon, neon, and helium considered to be
Actually noble gases are least reactive but among all, Xenon is the most reactive and Neon is
Q.3) Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists:
List I List II
Neutrino Observatory experiment names Countries
1. Daya Bay Reactor A) China
2. Hyper- Kamiokande B) Japan
3. NOvA C) US
4. JUNO D) India
Choose the correct match from below options:
1 st Chinese Neutrino Experiment: Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment (DBRNE)
2 nd Chinese Neutrino Experiment: JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory)
Hyper- Kamiokande in Japan
NOvA in the U.S.
India’s Neutrino Experiment – INO (Indian Neutrino Observatory) – located in Theni, TN (Near
Who else has a neutrino facility?
Underground: SNO, Canada, Kamioka in Japan and Gran Sasso, Italy.
Underwater: Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. Antares – under
Mediterranean sea off coast of Toulon, France.
Q.4) Consider the following statements with regard to Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)
1. AERB is engaged in the development of nuclear power technology, applications of
radiation technologies in the fields of agriculture, medicine, industry, and basic
2. The safety standards formulated by AERB are at par with those recommended by the
international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
a) 1 only
b) 2 only
c) Both 1 and 2
d) Neither 1 nor 2
Department of Atomic Energy (not AERB), established in 1954 is engaged in the
development of nuclear power technology, applications of radiation technologies in the
fields of agriculture, medicine, industry, and basic research.
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is an independent body, the Atomic Energy
Regulatory Board (AERB) monitors safety.
The safety standards formulated by AERB are at par with those recommended by the
international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP).
Q.5) Nikolaus Otto was famous for his 1876 discovery of –
a) Nuclear fission
b) Modern internal combustion engine
d) Bijov, the most powerful laser in the world
OTTO was born on June 10, 1832 at Holzhausen, Germany. He was the son of a farmer and
received meagre education. He left school when he was 16, to work in a merchant’s office.
Later he shifted to Cologne and became greatly interested in the gas engine pioneered by
the Belgian, Jean Lenoir (1822-1900). This self- taught technologist brought to a successful
conclusion two centuries of experiment to harness the energy resulting from an explosion
in a closed cylinder.
The principle employed was that of the double-acting steam engine. Instead of steam, gas
and air were successively admitted at each end of the cylinder. This enabled induction,
explosion and expansion to alternate with exhaustion on either side of the piston. Lenoir’s
engine patented in 1860 met the need of small industrialists and sold in hundreds. But it had
defects of lack of compression and in complete expansion, which limited the range from 1/2
to 3 HP. To overcome the above defects, Otto built in 1861 a small experimental engine. In 1864, he
entered into a collaboration with Eugen Langen to form a company. He received valuable
help from a former classmate Franz Reuleaux.
At the Paris Exhibition of 1867, the firm’s product a vertical gas engine won a gold medal
amongst 14 other gas engines displayed. A new factory, the Gasmotorenfabrik, was built in
1869 at Dentz near Cologne. Otto concentrated on the production side, leaving Langen to
develop the engineering side. Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900) and Wilhelm Maybach (1847-
1929) joined the team. Otto came out in 1876 with the patent for his four-stroke engine. This was in validated in
1886 as his competitors brought to notice the obscure pamphlet of Alphonse Bean de
Rochas (1815- 1893), where the principle of the four-stroke cycle had already been
enunciated.Otto introduced in 1877 a horizontal engine, the operation of which was similar to Beau’s
cycle. However, Otto’s much more efficient and relatively quiet engine – called the `silent
Otto’ – was well received and more than 30,000 engines were sold in the first ten years of
manufacture. Otto died on January 26, 1891 at Cologne.
The Otto cycle In the first stroke of the piston, the explosive mixture is drawn into the cylinder. It is
compressed on the return stroke. Then ignition is effected and the burning mixture drives
the piston during the third stroke. Finally, on the fourth stroke, the burnt gases are expelled
out of the cylinder. The cycle is repeated.
The superiority of Otto’s new engine over other types was soon recognised. Electric ignition
was employed in the beginning; this was substituted by ignition by means of a flame drawn
into the cylinder at the correct moment. A later innovation was the hot- tube method, in
which a small tube of platinum (or other non- combustible mater) was inserted in the
cylinder its outer being closed. The tube was kept at a bright red heat by an external gas
flame, and upon compression a portion of the charge was forced into the tube and then
ignited. The invention of the free-float carburettor by Wilhelm Maybach allowed petrol to
be used as a fuel instead of gas.
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