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Yojana Summary Nov 2019

Current Affairs UPSC CSE

Yojana Summary Oct 2019

Theme: Invaluable Legacy

Sanitation Economy and Dignity of the Sanitation Workers

  • The sanitation sector has emerged as a big economy in India in recent years and the future potential is immense. Sanitation economy is not just about toilets but it also includes provision of clean drinking water, elimination of waste and converting them into useful resources and digitized sanitation system that optimizes data for operating efficiencies, maintenance, consumer use, and health information insights.
  • Sanitation, in addition to an economy in itself, is also cross-cutting theme and has the potential to contribute in a big way to the growth and employment of many other sectors of Indian and global economy, most notably to sectors such as health, consumer goods and agriculture sector and new and renewable energy.

Government’s Initiatives Towards Sanitation

  • The first major initiative towards sanitation was the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) with an aim to accelerate sanitation coverage to achieve an Open Defecation Free (ODF) and Clean India by 2 October, 2019.
  • While in the first term of our Government (2014-2019), the focus was on toilets, in the second term, priority is on providing piped water, curbing single-use plastics, and ensuring garbage disposal to upscale the sanitation in the country to the next level. Undoubtedly, these new initiatives of our Government will further generate large number of direct and indirect jobs for our youth in coming five years.
  • A new Ministry of Jal Shakti was created in May 2019 by reorganizing the existing ministries and departments. Within months of creating the Ministry, the Hon’ble Prime Minister announced during the Independence Day speech that the Government will launch Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) to bring piped-water supply to all households (Har Ghar Jal) by 2024.
  • Like the SBM, the JJM mission target is quite ambitious and challenging given the fact that of the 18 crore rural households, only 3 crore households have piped drinking water and people, especially women, make long trips to fetch water.
  • The JJM will further boost the sanitation economy and generate new employment in the country, as the Government will spend more than Rs. 3.35 lakh crore in the coming years on this mission alone.
  • Lastly, the government’s initiative to curb single-use plastics from 2 October, 2019 will help in significant reduction in littering as about 14 million tones of plastic are used annually in the country. This will not only scale up the ongoing sanitation movement significantly but will also help in combating land and water pollution and improving health of our citizens.

Dignity to the Sanitation Workers

Some of the key initiatives taken by the Government for the betterment and welfare of the sanitation workers.

  • Legal Protection for Eliminating Manual Scavenging

In order to prohibit employment of manual scavengers, the Government had enacted Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013 (MS Act, 2013) which came into effect from 6 December, 2013. The objectives of this Act are to (i) eliminate the insanitary latrines; (ii) prohibit (a) employment as manual scavengers and, (b) hazardous manual cleaning of sewer and septic tanks and, (iii) survey of manual scavengers and their rehabilitation within a time – bound manner. Any contravention of the provisions is punishable with imprisonment up to 2 years and fine up to Rs. 2 lakh, or both.

  • Ensuring Minimum Wages, Safe Working Conditions and Pension Benefits

For ensuring minimum wages and timely payment of wages to all workers including the sanitary workers, Ministry of Labour and Employment has enacted the Code on Wages Bill, 2019, which received assent of the President on 8 August, 2019. This bill also provides for higher wage premium for workers engaged in arduous and hazardous work in difficult circumstances and therefore will benefit millions of sanitation workers. This will raise their income level and restore their dignity. the code also prohibits gender discrimination in wages, recruitment, and conditions of work, which will benefit women sanitation workers.


  • In addition to the Code on Wages, 2019, we have also introduced in the Lok Sabha the Code on Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions, 2019 on 23 July, 2019, after amalgamation, simplification, and rationalization of the relevant provisions of the 13 Central Labour Acts. The various enabling provisions of this Code will not only boost the well-being of the sanitation workers but will also ensure safe and healthy work environment. Efforts are currently underway to draft a Social Security Code, which will benefit not just the miniscule organized sector workers but will also include vast unorganized sector workers under its scope and ambit. As a large proportion of sanitation workers are in the unorganized sector, the provisions of the proposed Social Security Code will provide the sanitation workers their legal rights to social security.


  • In addition to the proposed Social Security Code, the Ministry has also introduced a pension scheme for unorganized workers namely Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM-SYM) on 5 March, 2019 to ensure old-age protection for unorganized workers, which will benefit the sanitation workers. The PM-SYM is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme, under which the subscriber shall receive minimum assured shall receive minimum assured pension of Rs. 3000 per month after attaining the age of 60 years. The age-specific monthly premium to be paid by the subscribers under the scheme has been kept low and there is a provision of matching contribution by the Central Government.


  • Housing, Education, Financial Assistance and Skill Development Schemes

A provision has been made under AY for special coverage of identified manual scavengers for providing them housing facilities in rural areas, irrespective of their BPL status. The new Scheme of our Government, ‘Housing for All’ under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation aims at providing housing facility to the citizens.

  • Under the Scheme of ‘Pre-Matric Scholarship to the Children of those engaged in Occupations involving cleaning and prone to health hazards’, being implemented by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, the children of manual scavengers, tanners and flayers, waste pickers and those engaged in hazardous cleaning are also provided scholarship between Rs. 225 to Rs. 700 per month for a period of 10 months in a year for pursuing their studies up to class 10th.
  • Further, the National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC), which was setup in 1997 as a wholly-owned Government of India Undertaking under the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment acts as an Apex Corporation for the all-round socio-economic upliftment of the safai karmcharis, scavengers and their dependents throughout India by creating alternate means of livelihoods to enable them live with dignity, honour, and pride along with the mainstream of the society.


  • Apart from these, the NSKFDC is the Nodal Agency for implementation of the Self-Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS) scheme.


  • Protecting Sanitation Workers through Ayushman Bharat

Ayushman Bharat – Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) is another flagship initiative introduced in September 2018 under the visionary leadership of Hon’ble Prime Minister, which has immense potential to benefit the sanitation workers and in restoring their dignity given the fact that a large proportion of them belong to poor and vulnerable families.


  • The PMJAY will cover families (approximately 50 crore beneficiaries) providing coverage up to Rs. 5 lakh per family per year (on a family floater basis) for almost all secondary care and most of tertiary care hospitalization, with no cap on family size. This will help sanitation workers in terms of reducing their out-of-pocket expenditure on health and will provide them flexibility to allocate their household resources towards other important family needs.


Way Forward

  • The goal of making India clean is as important as the goal of keeping India clean. Therefore, maintaining ODF status is important so that villagers are not returning to the old practice of open defecation. We must focus on putting in place a robust monitoring mechanism to check the condition of sanitation at the district and Panchayat level.


  • Although we are ODF, but the country is not garbage and litter free. Therefore, we must focus on circular economy for converting our waste into resources. The first step in this regard will be 100 per cent achievements in terms of waste segregation, successful disposal, and streamlining waste infrastructure. In addition, we must also focus on sustained behavioural changes through a trained workforce for curbing single-use plastics and thereby making India completely garbage and litter free.


  • Despite a ban on manual scavenging, its existence is reported from time to time. Therefore, use of technology can play a key role in addressing this issue and all the stakeholders must encourage this to get rid of manual scavenging completely.


  • Prioritization and faster identification of insanitary latrines and manual scavengers through a time-bound plan must be seriously and earnestly pursued so that effective rehabilitation of manual scavengers through various welfare and income generating scheme can be done at a much larger scale and in a mission mode.


  • Last but not the least, I call upon the trade unions, employers’ associations and other similar associations/organizations to provide adequate voice to issues of sanitation workers, their needs and requirements and to work with the Government hand in hand so that together we can strive hard to mainstream the sanitary workers and restoring their dignity.

Gram Panchayats: Beyond ODF


  • The Millennium Development Goal on sanitation, which was not achieved by India, and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – in particular SDG 6, which aims for universal water supply and sanitation – intend to provide similar aspirational frameworks which India has incorporated in its various national efforts, setting its own water and sanitation targets to be reached much sooner than 2030 as prescribed by the SDGs.


Lessons that Shaped Swachh Bharat


The SBM-G guidelines developed in 2014 incorporated some of the lessons learnt from prior implementation efforts. The approach to SBM-G itself was structured to allow more freedom in execution and a few unique advances included:

  • Strong public and political will power publicized by the Prime Minister over the past five years.
  • Adequate funding that paid necessary incentives to off-set high capital cost for 100 million households – approximately Rs. 1,00,000 crore.
  • District-level flexibility in administering the necessary activities and campaigns to increase coverage, which allowed for creative and locally relevant initiatives to be tested out, especially around behaviour change campaigns seeking mobilizing communities en masse.
  • Improving the ratio of financial investment in hardware with strong investment in software (i.e. behaviour change communication) with the community-level outcomes (like ODF status) – not single households in mind.
  • Utilizing the Community Approaches to Sanitation (CAS) methodology, which evoked emotional reactions such as disgust to the practice of open defecation through facilitation and not proselytisation; and
  • Women-headed households and Scheduled Castes and Tribes prioritized in the programme, with specific mention and attached incentives in the guidelines.
  • Concurrently, the Ministry of Panchayati Raj played a more visible role in strengthening GPs’ ability to provide services, which included SBM-G targets.
  • While the 73rd amendment to the Constitution of India delineated drinking water and sanitation as the responsibility of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) – including GPs – often it was the district authorities which made the important interventions. With this call to shift towards GP ownership, there have been efforts to strengthen the 3 Fs available to GPs: Funds, Functionaries, and Functions.
  • Through the national Gram Panchayat Development Plans (GPDP) guidance of 2018, Ministry of Panchayati Raj has made efforts to ensure that GPDPs are appropriately convergent in reflecting how WASH investments and interventions can be mainstreamed into existing budgetary considerations.
  • The GPs were deeply involved in acting as liaisons and representatives of households early on, when sourcing raw material for construction and mobilizing training efforts to build the capacity of masons and swachhagrahis (community motivators) but were slowly phased out of key efforts as many state departments found it easier to interface with the households directly.
  • Thereby, GPs were often not kept directly in the loop for implementation.


Giving GPs the Central Role

  • In 2018, the Government revised the national GPDP guidelines to specifically state that ‘ sanitation, solid waste management, drinking water….need to be prioritized into the revised state level guidelines on GPDP’. This is echoed by the 2018 rural ODF- Sustainable Guidelines.
  • To frame the new phase, in September 2019, the MoJS released a newly drafted 10-year Rural Sanitation Strategy, which lays down the steps to be taken till 2029 to ensure that sanitation access is sustained and further developed.
  • The strategy is intended to guide, central, state, and local governments; policy makers, implementers and all relevant stakeholders in the planning for and achievement of what happens beyond ODF, i.e., what is called ODF Plus.
  • According to the strategy, ‘ODF Plus entails that ODF behaviours are sustained, and every village has access to solid and liquid waste management. India is working towards this long-term vision of ODF Plus.
  • This is necessary for India to sustain its achievement towards the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, especially SDG 6.2 which is, ‘ By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.’
  • The objective are ‘sustaining the gains of the SBM-G and ensuring sustained access to safely managed sanitation for all rural Indians’ and ‘achieve a clean-living environment through solid and liquid waste management’.
  • The new framework strategically places GPs at the centre of the coordinating efforts to ensure that SLWM activities are taking place in all villages. This ensures that the principle of ‘subsidiarity’, which states that ‘decisions should always be taken at the lowest possible level or closest to where they will have their effect’.
  • In a chapter on ‘Decentralized Governance and Institutional Structure’, the strategy lays out the responsibilities and coordinating mechanisms for GPs, which include key structural elements such as ‘ orient swachhagrahis to know their role and responsibilities for water and sanitation’, and ‘create management systems for O&M of services’.
  • The framework also lays out how all stakeholders can harmonize their actions and investments by allocating complementary mandates for action to respective ministries and departments, with the ideal that they all coordinate regularly and involve the development partners, private sector, civil society organizations (CSOs), and academic institutions where applicable and effective.
  • While urban areas may be able to build and utilize larger faecal sludge treatment solutions, rural communities that fall outside of the radius of off-site door-to-treatment service will have to come up with locally sustainable options that function efficiently at the GP level.
  • The same is true for other waste management and resource recycling efforts, including for waste water management, solid waste management that include menstrual hygiene waste, and the outcomes such as useable compost and grey water for gardening and farming.
  • In addition, given the respect and authority accorded to the role of the Pradhan/Sarpanch, the swachhagrahis, and other key players at the grassroots levels, it is important to leverage their potential for making services relevant, effective and sustainable, while ensuring that community leaders remain accountable.
  • Finally, with the launch of Jal Jeevan Mission, which aims to provide drinking water to all households by 2024, it is important to converge sanitation programming with upcoming water supply work to ensure that water sources remain safe and uncontaminated and that sanitation services are sustained with water available.
  • Convergence can be verbally advocated for by district and state leaders, but the real efforts will have to be led by GPs who have the authority and flexibility over how they want to converge and apply the available funding and tools provided to them under various programmes.


The Way Forward

  • The training focuses on the actions necessary to make the strategic framework a reality.
  • The representatives are led through sessions on everything from how to manage existing water resources and allocate necessary budgets through the GPDPs to what waste management consists of and how to involve existing cadres of swacchagrahis, raj and rani mistris (men and women who masons) and other local groups to promote the next steps of the sanitation cycle such as pit-emptying and waste management.
  • Messaging on hygiene – hand washing with soap – is also highlighted given that this low-cost practice can drastically reduce the burden of diarrheal disease, if done so consistently.
  • We look forward to seeing the outcomes of this effort and how it will contribute to the next step of ambitions laid out by the Government of India.
  • There are still many lessons to be learned, especially when it comes to addressing critical challenges, such as menstrual waste management, safe disposal of child faeces and retro-fitting of pit-toilet models to make them functional and sustainable.
  • These issues and more can only be effectively addressed if GPs are firstly given the authority (viz-a-viz the 3 Fs) and there is buy-in and leadership from the GP leaders, because the power truly lies with them to make a lasting difference for their people.

Solid Waste Management: The Way Forward


  • Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016 delineate and responsibility of the different stakeholders including the MoEF&CC, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, (MoHUA), Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs), State Urban Departments, Urban Local bodies, Gram Panchayats, as well as the waste generators.
  • Whereas MoHUA, State Urban Departments and Local Bodies have mainly been entrusted with the responsibility of development of infrastructure related to waste management, MoEF&CC, CPCB, SPCB, and Pollution Control Committee (PCC) have been entrusted with the responsibility of monitoring the enforcement of the Rules.
  • The responsibility of the waste generator lies essentially in proper segregation of the waste which is the core requirement of effective solid waste management. The Rules demarcate the requirements of the key components of the solid waste management system besides fixing the timeline for achieving the same.


SWM- Key Components

The key components of SWM system include the following:

  • Stage 1: Segregation of waste by waste generator into dry and wet waste;
  • Stage 2: Door-to-door collection of waste and transportation of segregated waste;
  • Stage 3: Setting up of material recovery facilities for dry waste to recover recyclables like plastic, paper, metal, glass, etc.;
  • Stage 4: Setting up of waste processing facilities, viz., compost, biomethanation and waste-to-energy plants for resource recovery and energy generation; and
  • Stage 5: Setting up of waste disposal facilities – Landfills.
  • The main objective of an efficient SWM system is to maximize resource recovery and energy generation from waste in the processing facility (Stage 4) and minimize waste disposal in landfills, which weighs heavily on our ever-shrinking land resources and also is a potential source of air, soil, and water contamination.


Status of Solid Waste Management

  • The overall solid waste generated in the country has been estimated to be 1,52,076 Tons per day (TPD) as per the Annual Report 2018-19 submitted by the SPCBs/PCCs. Of this, 1,49,748 TPD of waste is collected which is 98.5% of the total waste generated.
  • However, only 55,759 TDP (35%) of waste is treated, and 50,161 TPD (33%) of waste is landfilled and 46,156 TDP of waste which is one-third of the total waste generated in the country remains unaccounted.
  • The unaccounted waste is littered on streets or lands up in dumpsites. There are presently 3,159 dumpsites in the country which are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution.

SWM Initiatives


(i) Initiatives taken by CPCB

CPCB has prepared the following guidelines which are uploaded on its website:

  • Guidelines on Legacy Waste;
  • Guidelines on Buffer Zone;
  • Guidelines for Management of Sanitary Waste; and
  • Selection Criteria for Waste Processing Technologies.


Collection of waste Through door-to-door collection by Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) Source segregation mandatory for waste processing
Waste treatment Composting Take off of compost
    Odour issues and leachate generation
  Biomethanation End product take off; Homogenous waste required
  Incineration Emissions: Acid gases, dioxins, and furans
Landfill   Inadequate capacity; O&M issues; Land issues


(ii) Initiatives taken by States/Union Territories


Initiatives taken by Chhattisgarh State are as follows:


  • Door-to-door collection, waste segregation, and transportation in covered vehicles completed in all ULBs;
  • Land for waste processing facilities identified in all 168 ULBs;
  • No sanitary landfills planned-166 ULBs have Solid and Liquid Resource Management (SLRM) centres and 2 ULBs have Compost/Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) facilities;
  • SLRMs planned for Gram Panchayats;
  • Bioremediation/capping completed in 160 ULBs/Remaining 8 to be covered by 2021; and
  • Municipal bye-laws for levying spot fine for littering framed.


(iii) Setting up of Waste-to-Energy Plants:

Four waste-to-energy plants have been set-up in the country of which three plants are in Delhi. Electricity generated by these plants is purchased by the power regulators and is fed to the national grid. Several other such plants are in the pipeline in different parts of the country.


(iv) Development of Model Cities:

Model cities which include Pune (Maharashtra), Indore (Madhya Pradesh), and Ambikapur (Chhattisgarh) have been developed which have implemented efficient methods for collection, segregation, and waste processing facilities.


(v) Increased Judicial Intervention

After the enactment of the NGT Act 2010, in past few years we have seen increasing judicial intervention in ensuring compliance with the provisions of SWM Rules by the various stakeholders, specifically the State authorities.


The various challenges faced in implementation of SWM Rules include the following:

  • Segregation of waste at source by waste generators;
  • Lack of infrastructure for collection and transportation of waste;
  • Availability of land for setting up of waste collection and transportation facilities;
  • Budgetary provisions for (ii & iii) above;
  • Techno-economically viable solutions for fresh & legacy Waste;
  • Management of legacy waste;
  • Rural areas not covered in most of the States/UTs; and
  • Enforcement issues.

Way Forward

As availability of land, lack of infrastructure, and availability of financial resources serve as a major impediment for SWM, focus of the SWM is to maximize resource recovery from waste so as to facilitate availability of these resources for efficient SWM. The major steps in this direction would include:

  • Creating public awareness for involvement of different stakeholders for SWM;
  • Development of ULB-wise action plan for collection, segregation, transportation and processing of waste. Inputs from model cities like Indore, Ambikapur, and Pune may be taken for development and implementation of these plans;
  • Emphasizing on setting up of waste processing facilities rather than waste disposal facilities as in the case of Chhattisgarh;
  • Giving fillip to research & development activities with focus on resource recovery from waste;
  • Capacity building in various regimes of SWM;
  • Laying down of an appropriate governance framework at State and district levels;
  • Clear allocation of responsibility to ULBs and waste generators for setting up of infrastructure and for involving informal sector in waste collection/segregation; and
  • Adequate technical support to ULBs for processing technology and best practices in waste management.

Sustaining Behavioural Change

  • With Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), the country witnessed a silent revolution in the construction of toilets. The movement which was launched on 2 October, 2014 succeeded in construction of over 10 crore toilets by 2 October, 2019.
  • Because of these enormous efforts, about 6 lakh villages in approximately 700 districts in the country were declared open defecation free. A major differentiating feature of SBM from all other earlier programmes has been its demand-driven nature where the primary objective is to bring about behaviour change leading to the generation of demand for construction of toilets as well as to increase the use of toilets.
  • Apart from the behavioural factors, it is found that the design of the toilet, availability of sanitation materials, access to water, and political or social leadership account for a higher demand for construction and use of toilets (O’Reilly, and Louis 2014).
  • SBM focuses on collective behaviour change of entire community. However, many villages are not homogenous and are fragmented along the caste and religious lines … Collective behaviour change in a village is easier when the whole village is homogeneous but difficult when there are more conflicts (Gupta, Coffey, and Spears, 2016).
  • Furthermore, caste-based notion of purity and pollution makes it difficult to construct pit latrine which requires emptying it in future. Thus, adoption of toilets is not always linked to the presence or absence of water or toilets but to ‘social determinants’ and social convention reinforced by traditional beliefs.
  • The challenge of behaviour change is often compounded by the diversity in Indian society, and therefore, would require more contextual understanding. As a matter of fact, without having local knowledge into the fold, the sanitation campaign will lead to fruitless activities.

Behavioural Patterns

  • There is a strong relationship between having a separate kitchen and having a toilet. Hygienic kitchen as a separate place within the house is as important as having a toilet. The predominant reason for toilet construction in the household is privacy and convenience followed by peer pressure, prestige in society, spouse pressure, and persuasion of Panchayat leaders, political leaders, health and social workers.
  • Villages having piped source of drinking water were more likely to have both access to toilet and use of toilets.
  • Furthermore, the gender of the household head also impacts access to the toilet. A female-headed household is more likely to use toilets than male-headed household. Self-employed non-agricultural household is less likely to continue open defecation.
  • The quality of life of a household is an important factor concerning access to the toilet. Access to other basic services increases the chances of having access to the toilet. An exclusive toilet is more likely to be used if the household has access to a dedicated water facility.
  • The chances of open defecation increase if the distance of drinking water source is more than 400 meters from the premises instead of having a drinking water source within the dwelling.
  • Similarly, chances of having a toilet for exclusive use reduce by 10 per cent if the drinking water source is outside the dwelling but within premises instead of having a drinking water source within the dwelling. Bathroom facility plays an important role in access to the toilet.
  • The chances of open defecation increase substantially if the households have no access to the bathroom. An attached bathroom increases the chances of toilet use by all members of the households. Insufficient availability of water at various times of the year has a negative implication on the usage of the toilet. Housing condition, which is an indicator of standard of living, has implications for toilet usage as well.
  • The economic condition of the households, captured by total expenses, has a positive impact on access and use of toilets.
  • Access to information regarding Government schemes and financial assistance for toilet construction are also contributing factors for construction and use of toilet, respectively. The health and hygiene condition of the surroundings also impacts the construction and use of the toilet.
  • Apart from socio-economic, infrastructural, and environmental effects, the state-specific effects on access and use of toilets came out as significant.
  • The households, despite being conscious of personal and social wellbeing, do not consider open defecation as a threat to their wellbeing. Demand for own house, religious places, fair or social gathering as a source of entertainment were high as compared to the construction of toilet.
  • Non-acceptance of the toilet by few households in the village results in negative reactions by others; so those who are using also stop using it under some pretext or other. Different self-help group members reported that the toilet structure is not friendly for physically challenged. In large households, elderly persons were not comfortable in using toilets.
  • Different initiatives such as morning vigilance, whistle blowing, meetings, training, etc. have been taken to create awareness against open defecation.
  • The communities have not been educated about the importance of proper sanitation system, need of toilets, proper disposal of faeces, and menstrual hygiene.
  • Socio-cultural norms about purity and pollution prevented people from having the toilet at home. Similarly, for many priorities are different. For example, in a village in Medak District in Telangana, the community members contributed money for the construction of a religious place but do not want to spend money on construction of the toilet.



  • The present programme, while widely appreciated leaves a scope of the new adoptees to get back to their original behaviour.
  • To prevent this, the programme may include the provision of more than one toilet for larger households.
  • More emphasis may be given for information dissemination at the ground level. Health and social workers can play a larger role in influencing people.
  • Improvement of sanitation is linked with other indicators of living conditions. Hence, it is important to have a better infrastructure at the household level as well as public service.
  • Better water supply service, housing, construction of the bathroom influence the access and use of the toilet.
  • At the same time, higher income of households with higher purchasing power for durable goods would lead to better living standards of living and thus sanitation practice. Also, emphasis on female literacy is imperative for better sanitation coverage.


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