The Prayas ePathshala

Exams आसान है !

09 May 2024 – The Hindu


Reduction in Population of India

Depopulation, including underpopulation, population collapse, and population decline:

  • It is a decrease in the number of people on Earth.
  • The sharp drop in the worldwide total fertility rate is the primary cause of the fall in population increase.

Fundamentals of population decline:

  • Fair distribution of household chores
  • The availability of affordable child care enables women to pursue careers and families.
  • reduced immigration restrictions to allow access for individuals of working age from nations whose populations aren’t currently declining.

Worldwide situation:

  • The population of China is starting to dwindle.
  • For a further forty years, population growth is anticipated in India.
  • India’s population is expected to start declining only in 2063, according to UN forecasts.

Why is India’s fertility rate declining?

  • increasing earnings
  • greater educational and health access for women.

India’s fertility:

  • The overall fertility rate in India is currently lower than the replacement rate.
  • States below the replacement rate are on the verge of experiencing actual population reductions.
  • Kerala: in 1998, replacement fertility was attained.
  • In 2000, Tamil Nadu made this happen.
  • India’s urban fertility rate was estimated by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) to be 1.6 (one point six) for the 2019–21 period, placing it next to the United Kingdom.

Tamil Nadu and Kerala’s current state:

  • Kerala and Tennessee: They must both reevaluate whether their low in-migration rates can last.
  • 2011 saw a ten-year difference in median age between Tamilians and Biharis.
  • They will be apart by more than 12 years by 2036.
  • The future working-age population will have a northern skew.
  • Net migration rates were negative in both states.
  • that is, they sent out a greater number of migrants than they received.

Issues brought on by population decline:

  • Unbalanced gender ratio: It’s still dangerous.
  • NFHS: Compared to families with only one girl, families with at least one man are less likely to desire more children.
  • the notable disparities in basic literacy and college enrollment, particularly in technical subjects, between the northern and southern states.
  • That will imply that southern workers are not always interchangeable.
  • Despite the fact that Muslim and Hindu fertility is convergent, the discourse nevertheless maintains a sharply anti-Muslim tone.

Rate of fertility:

  • The number of live births to women of a certain age throughout the year expressed as a percentage of the average yearly population of women of that age is known as the fertility rate at that age.

The Way Ahead:

  • With decreasing mortality (except from the pandemic): Kerala and Tamil Nadu’s overall population is expected to increase over the next few decades, requiring fewer individuals of working age to care for a larger number of elderly people than in the past.
  • After decades of concentrating on reducing reproduction, it is time for the southern states to abandon this antiquated, data-free rhetoric and take part in the global depopulation discussion.
  • Discussions on the decline in fertility in the southern states are frequently centred on the costs these states bear in comparison to others when it comes to their proportion of federal tax revenue or political representation.

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