The Prayas India

Exams आसान है !


Previous slide
Next slide

Unemployment in India

According to a recent data published by the Center for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE), the unemployment rate in India has touched a four-month high in December, 2021. Such an increase in unemployment rate could adversely impact our economy which is still recovering from the burns of CoVID-19. Don’t forget to visit this vital website ThePrayasIndia for your competitive exam preparation before we get started.

What is Unemployment?

  • It can be defined as a situation wherein a person who is capable of working both physically as well as mentally at the existing wage rates is unable to find a suitable employment for himself or herself.
  • In other words, unemployment is a situation wherein an individual capable of working at the prevalent wage rate is unable to find a suitable job.

Types of Unemployment:

Unemployment can be categorized into the following types;

  1. Disguised Unemployment: It can be referred to as a situation wherein more people are engaged in a particular occupation than actually required. E.g., In agricultural sector, if ploughing a field requires two people and suppose four people are doing the job. Then in this case, the output of the latter two people is ZERO as even without their efforts the earlier two people would have ploughed the field.
  2. Seasonal Unemployment: It can be referred to as a situation wherein some people remain unemployed for some part of a year and are employed for the remaining part of the year. For instance, farmers in India rarely have any employment after harvesting their fields.
  3. Structural Unemployment: It is a situation of unemployment created when there is a mismatch between the existing skillsets of the workers and the skillsets which are required for the existing jobs. For instance, in India, it is often said that the youth here do not possess enough skills because of which the employer (company/organization) restrains from providing this youth with jobs.
  4. Cyclic Unemployment: This case of unemployment is a result of business cycle which rises with recessionary trends and declines with economic growth.
  5. Frictional Unemployment: It can be defined as a situation wherein people remain unemployed for a short time-period especially when they are searching for a new job or if they are switching between jobs.

Measures of Unemployment in India:

The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) under The Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation (MoSPI) measures unemployment in India using the following approaches;

  1. Usual Status Approach: In this approach, only those people are considered unemployed who had no gainful work for majority of the time in the previous 365 days preceding the survey.
  2. Weekly Status Approach: In this approach, only those people are considered unemployed who had no gainful work for even an hour on any day of the week preceding the survey.
  3. Daily Status Approach: In this approach, only those people are considered unemployed who had no gainful work for even one hour in a day.

Causes of Unemployment in India:

The causes of unemployment in India can be summarized as follows;

  1. Population Growth: A rapid increase in the population is one of the major reasons for increase in unemployment. According to CMIE, the unemployment rate in India as of December,2021 was at 7.9%.
  2. Lack of required Skills: Skill deficit in India is a huge issue for providing gainful employment. The available labor force isn’t equipped with the skills required by industries today. This is inhibiting India from reaping the potential offered by its Demographic Dividend.
  3. The issue of disguised unemployment in Agriculture: The agricultural sector is the biggest employer in India. It employs about 51% of India’s workforce. However, its contribution to India’s GDP has been hovering around 18%. This proves the fact that the agricultural sector is dominated by the phenomenon of disguised unemployment.
  4. Poor growth of Industrial Sector: After the economic reforms of 1991, the industrial sector did not grow as much as the service sector. Moreover, the development in industrial sector was dominated by the capital intensive industries and not labor intensive industries.
  5. Poor investment in the economy: The Indian economy is majorly driven by the Public Final Consumption Expenditure (~60%). The share of Gross Investment is about 30%. It is this structural bottleneck because of which the economy has not been able to generate employment.
  6. Improper Planning: The 5-year planning system adopted by India did not result in the generation of enough employment opportunities. There was a misconception that economic growth would lead to generation of employment. However, the fact of the matter is that India has faced a phenomenon known as “Jobless Growth”. This can be attributed to the faulty planning system adopted by India post independence.
  7. Social Factors: Due to the prevalence of caste-system in India, some people from a certain specific caste are forced to practice a certain kind of occupation only. Moreover, in case of joint-family system who own big businesses, people from the family who are unable to find any employment are dependent on the joint income of the family.

Steps required to fight Unemployment:

Following are the steps required to fight unemployment in India;

  1. Investment-driven economic model: As highlighted in the Economic Survey 2018-19, India needs to shift gears from the consumption-driven economy to an investment-driven economy. This shall lead to creation of a lot of employment opportunities in India.Virtuous Cycle
  2. Enhancing Skill-Development: In order to reap the potential offered by its demographic dividend, India needs to focus on quality education at school and university level and also ensure that its youth is adequately skilled in order to meet the demands of the industry.
  3. Labor-intensive Industries: It is the need of the hour that India starts focusing on Labor-intensive sectors. For instance, the Textile sector has immense potential to give provide employment opportunities.
  4. Policy reforms: The manner in which the government recently introduced the Labor Laws, likewise the government needs to come up with a holistic employment policy wherein it can undertake reforms to remove the structural reforms and boost employment creation.

Initiatives taken by Government:

The government has taken various initiatives in order to fight the menace of Unemployment;

  1. Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana.
  2. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act
  3. Start-Up India
  4. Make In India






All About UPSC CSE Exam Preparation

Exam Notification

UPSC CSE Calendar 2024

  • Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2024 & Indian Forest Service (Preliminary) Examination, 2024 through CS(P) Examination 2023 26 May 2024

Download UPSC CSE Notification 2024: Click here

Exam Pattern

UPSC Syllabus

UPSC Prelims Syllabus

UPSC Mains Syllabus

Previous Papers

YearPrelims-GSPrelims-CSATMains-GS 1Mains-GS 2Mains-GS 3Mains-GS 4Mains-EssayMains-EnglishMains-Hindi

Prelims Previous Years Papers – Subject & Year Wise

PRE SUBJECT201820172016201520142013
Science & Technology201820172016201520142013
Modern India201820172016201520142013
Medieval India201820172016201520142013

Mains Previous Years Papers – Subject & Year Wise

MAINS SUBEJECT201820172016201520142013
Internal Security201820172016201520142013
Ethics – I201820172016201520142013
Ethics – II (Case Studies)201820172016201520142013
Environment and Ecology201820172016201520142013
Disaster Management201820172016201520142013
Ancient History and Art & Culture201820172016201520142013
Agriculture201820172016No Question20142013
Indian Society2018201720162015 20142013

Cut Off Marks

Awards And Achievements

Play Video about Best Institution for Competetive Exam Course in Maharashtra
Play Video about Best Innovative Institute forUPSC, Bank, Railway, SSC & MBA in Maharashtra
Play Video about Best Institution for UPSC CSE Preparation in Maharashtra
Play Video about Best Coaching Institute for Competitive Exam in Maharashtra

Teaching Methodology:

The Prayas India- Exam आसान है!

LEARN: Learning is the first stage of any exam preparation. The Prayas India provides the simplified learning approach. It believes in technology and helps the aspirants for smart preparation.
PRACTICE: “Practice makes a man perfect”. After each and every topic, the aspirants need to practice on Mock Question Papers and Previous Years Papers. The Prayas India helps to understand the Exam Pattern and practice on exam oriented pattern.
ANALYZE: The last and the most important part is giving the test and analysing the performance. The Prayas India provides All India level real time test platform where an aspirant can track themselves with performance and progress.

Why the Prayas ?

We know that you are in search of not just a coaching, but an institution where you get all your learning needs fulfilled. Here, at The Prayas, we mentor you, guide you with the best strategy, and solve all your doubts that will help you achieve your goal.

Play Video about The Prayas Methodology



We are a team of highly experienced mentors. The Research & Development Team at Prayas continuously works hard for all our students.

Teaching Methodogy

We firmly believe in and follow the three steps of preparation:
1. Learn
2. Practice
3. Test

Study Material

The Prayas study material is extremely comprehensive and very well designed. It is regularly updated by our Research & Development team.

Time Table

It is imperative to be disciplined to crack competitive exams. Our mentors help aspirants in defining their study time table and strategy.

Doubt Clearance

Instant solution of doubts is our USP. We have several dedicated groups and communities to help aspirants get their doubts solved in real time.

Progress Tracker

We provide individual progress tracker to every aspirant. It helps the aspirant complete syllabus in defined time frame and builds confidence.

Foundation Support

We provide special basic lectures to beginners. Easy-to-understand explanation of important concepts helps them build a strong base.

1-on-1 Mentor Connect

We connect one-on-one with students who require support from us in their learning. Mentors are always available & ready for support.

Technology Driven

Ours is a highly technology-driven platform that meets all the learning needs of aspirants. It simplifies their experience and helps them clear examinations with ease.

Previous slide
Next slide

Awards & Achievements

Thanks for your appreciation & love.

Play Video
Play Video
Play Video
Play Video

Other Imoprtant Articles: