The Prayas India

Exams आसान है !


Previous slide
Next slide



The 6th Century BC saw a rise of many heterodox sects. It is said that as many as 63 heterodox sects were formed during this time period. Out of these 63 sects, Buddhism and Jainism were the two major sects that came to the forefront and laid down a solid foundation which exists till date.

Causes for the Rise of these Sects:

One of the most prominent reasons for the rise of these sects was to oppose the Brahmanical dominance in the society. In addition to this, following are some other prominent reasons for the rise of these heterodox sects in India;

  1. Brahmanical Dominance: In the Later Vedic Age, there were many complex rituals and practices which were advocated by the people belonging to the higher castes. Such practices were not acceptable to the common people. These ceremonies were very expensive and the superstitious beliefs and mantra’s confused the common man. Moreover, the Upanishads were highly philosophical and difficult to be understood by the common man. Thus, the people needed a simple way of attaining salvation. This simple path was shown by these heterodox sects, especially Buddhism and Jainism.
  2. Social Factors: The rigidity of the Caste System, especially in the Later Vedic Age restricted certain rights for the lower classes. For instance, certain religious ceremonies could only be performed by the Brahmins i.e., priesthood now became a profession (a hereditary one) which could only be practiced by the Brahmins.
  3. Growth of Trade: Increase in agricultural production and an increase in trade improved the economic conditions of the Vaishya’s. As a consequence, they wanted to improve their social status as well. However, the rigid caste system did not allow them to raise their social status.

These newly formed heterodox sects, provided a platform which addressed the above issues faced by the common people. Thus, in the 6th century BCE, these sects, especially Buddhism and Jainism raised to prominence.

Early Life of Gautam Buddha:

Gautam Buddha, was born as Siddhartha in 563 BCE at Lumbini in Nepal. He was born in the Sakya clan. His father was Suddodhana and his mother was Mahamaya who unfortunately died at the time of his birth. He was raised by his step-mother Gautami. At the age of 16, he was married to Yashodhara and had a son named Rahul.

At the age of 29, it is believed that Siddhartha saw an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic. This picture turned him away from the material life. He left his home in the search for truth and wandered for 6 years along-with his companions Vappa, Assaji, Mahanama, Bhaddiya and Kondanna. Siddhartha earlier believed that the practice of extreme austerities would lead to enlightenment. However, this myth of Siddhartha was soon broken when his health deteriorated. One day, on their arrival in a village named Senani, Siddhartha was offered a bowl of rice and milk by a girl named Sujata. After accepting this food, Siddhartha was left deserted by his companions. Herein, Siddhartha sat under a Bodhi tree and took a vow that he shall not get up until and unless he attains enlightenment.

The Story of Mara and attainment of Enlightenment (Nirvana):

Mara was a lord of illusion who tried to break Siddhartha’s vow of attaining enlightenment under the Bodhi tree. However, Siddharta’s wisdom and compassion helped him transform Mara’s weapons into flowers.

Thus, at the age of 35, Siddharta finally attained Nirvana under the Bodhi tree at the banks of river Niranjana. He then came to be called as Buddha – the enlightened one.

Buddha delivered his first sermon at Sarnath. This event is known as “Dhamma Chakka Pavattana”.

He died at the age of 80 at Kusinagara. This event is known as “Mahaparinirvana”.

Buddhist Symbols related to Buddha’s Life:

Event Symbol
Birth Lotus and Bull
Mahabhiniskramana (The Great Departure) Horse
Nirvana (Enlightenment) Bodhi Tree
Dhammachakkaparivartan Wheel
Mahaparinirvana (Death) Stupa


Doctrine of Gautam Buddha:

Buddha held a belief that the world is full of suffering. For him, the root cause of suffering was desire to get something. Hence, in order to end this suffering Buddha propagated that an individual needs to overcome his/her desires. In order to overcome these desires, Buddha put forth a noble eight-fold path theory, also known as the “Ashtangika Marga“.

Doctrine of Buddha

Dukkha: Truth of suffering.

Samudaya: Truth of the cause of suffering

Nirodha: Truth of the end of suffering

Magga: Truth of the Path

Buddha’s Eightfold Path:

Eight Fold Path
Ashtangika Marg

Gautam Buddha rejects the idea of existence of God. Buddhism does not believe in the notions of purity and pollution of the Caste System. The Buddhist Sangha was open for all people irrespective of their caste. Even women were allowed to be a part of the Buddhist Sangha.

Buddhist Councils:

Buddhist Council Year Place King President Outcomes
First 483BC Rajgriha Ajatshatru Mahakashyap Composition of Sutta Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka
Second 383BC Vaishali Kalashoka Sabakami Lead to the division of Buddhism into two sects: Sthaviravadin and Mahasangika
Third 250BC Patliputra Ashoka Mogliputta Tissa Lead to the composition of Abhidhamma Pitaka.
Fourth 1st Century AD Kashmir Kanishka Vasumitra Buddhism got divided into Mahayana and Hinyana sect.


Schools of Buddhism:

Schools of Buddhism ThePrayasIndia
Schools of Buddhism

Difference between Hinayana and Mahayana:

Hinayana Mahayana
Literal meaning – The Lesser Path Literal meaning – The Greater Path
It treats Buddha as a simple human-being. It treats Buddha as equal to God.
Does not believe in idol worship. It believes in idol worship.
Its scriptures are in Pali. Its scriptures are in Sanskrit
At present found in SriLanka, Myanmar and Thailand At present found in China, Mongolia and Korea.
Ashoka patronised this sect. Kanishka patronised this sect.


Buddhist Texts:

The Tripitaka’s lay down the basic principles and tenets of Buddhism.  These three pitakas are;

  1. Sutta Pitaka – It tells about the basic teachings of Gautam Buddha. It is divided into 5 parts or Nikayas. It is believed to have been compiled by Ananda, the disciple of Buddha.
  2. Vinaya Pitaka – It lays down the rules of the Buddhist Sangha. It is believed to have been compiled by Upali.
  3. Abhidhamma Pitaka – It talks about Buddhist philosophy and its principles.

Apart from the Tripitakas, the followings are some texts/works of Buddhism;

  • Vishuddhimarga – It is written by Ashvaghosha.
  • Mahavastu (by Hinayana sect) and Lalitvistara (by Mahayana sect) are biographies of Buddha.
  • Milindapanho (Questions by Milinda) is a dialogue in the Pali language consisting of a conversation between Indo-Greek king Melander and the monk Nagasena.


All About UPSC CSE Exam Preparation

Exam Notification

UPSC CSE Calendar 2024

  • Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination, 2024 & Indian Forest Service (Preliminary) Examination, 2024 through CS(P) Examination 2023 26 May 2024

Download UPSC CSE Notification 2024: Click here

Exam Pattern

UPSC Syllabus

UPSC Prelims Syllabus

UPSC Mains Syllabus

Previous Papers

YearPrelims-GSPrelims-CSATMains-GS 1Mains-GS 2Mains-GS 3Mains-GS 4Mains-EssayMains-EnglishMains-Hindi

Prelims Previous Years Papers – Subject & Year Wise

PRE SUBJECT201820172016201520142013
Science & Technology201820172016201520142013
Modern India201820172016201520142013
Medieval India201820172016201520142013

Mains Previous Years Papers – Subject & Year Wise

MAINS SUBEJECT201820172016201520142013
Internal Security201820172016201520142013
Ethics – I201820172016201520142013
Ethics – II (Case Studies)201820172016201520142013
Environment and Ecology201820172016201520142013
Disaster Management201820172016201520142013
Ancient History and Art & Culture201820172016201520142013
Agriculture201820172016No Question20142013
Indian Society2018201720162015 20142013

Cut Off Marks

Awards And Achievements

Play Video about Best Institution for Competetive Exam Course in Maharashtra
Play Video about Best Innovative Institute forUPSC, Bank, Railway, SSC & MBA in Maharashtra
Play Video about Best Institution for UPSC CSE Preparation in Maharashtra
Play Video about Best Coaching Institute for Competitive Exam in Maharashtra

Teaching Methodology:

The Prayas India- Exam आसान है!

LEARN: Learning is the first stage of any exam preparation. The Prayas India provides the simplified learning approach. It believes in technology and helps the aspirants for smart preparation.
PRACTICE: “Practice makes a man perfect”. After each and every topic, the aspirants need to practice on Mock Question Papers and Previous Years Papers. The Prayas India helps to understand the Exam Pattern and practice on exam oriented pattern.
ANALYZE: The last and the most important part is giving the test and analysing the performance. The Prayas India provides All India level real time test platform where an aspirant can track themselves with performance and progress.

Why the Prayas ?

We know that you are in search of not just a coaching, but an institution where you get all your learning needs fulfilled. Here, at The Prayas, we mentor you, guide you with the best strategy, and solve all your doubts that will help you achieve your goal.

Play Video about The Prayas Methodology



We are a team of highly experienced mentors. The Research & Development Team at Prayas continuously works hard for all our students.

Teaching Methodogy

We firmly believe in and follow the three steps of preparation:
1. Learn
2. Practice
3. Test

Study Material

The Prayas study material is extremely comprehensive and very well designed. It is regularly updated by our Research & Development team.

Time Table

It is imperative to be disciplined to crack competitive exams. Our mentors help aspirants in defining their study time table and strategy.

Doubt Clearance

Instant solution of doubts is our USP. We have several dedicated groups and communities to help aspirants get their doubts solved in real time.

Progress Tracker

We provide individual progress tracker to every aspirant. It helps the aspirant complete syllabus in defined time frame and builds confidence.

Foundation Support

We provide special basic lectures to beginners. Easy-to-understand explanation of important concepts helps them build a strong base.

1-on-1 Mentor Connect

We connect one-on-one with students who require support from us in their learning. Mentors are always available & ready for support.

Technology Driven

Ours is a highly technology-driven platform that meets all the learning needs of aspirants. It simplifies their experience and helps them clear examinations with ease.

Previous slide
Next slide

Awards & Achievements

Thanks for your appreciation & love.

Play Video
Play Video
Play Video
Play Video

Other Imoprtant Articles:

Ready to Crack UPSC CSE ?

Connect with us and begin your IAS preparation with the best mentors of India.

Happy Gudi Padwa!
Get a 30% Additional Discount on All The Prayas Courses  

Ready to Crack UPSC CSE ?

Connect with us and begin your IAS preparation with the best mentors of India.